Cracking the Code: How Social Engineering Shaped UP’s 2019 Elections

Social engineering in Indian political campaigns involves influencing and shaping public opinion and behavior through strategic communication, targeted outreach, and manipulation of social structures and cultural norms. The Uttar Pradesh (UP) 2019 elections serve as a compelling case study to illustrate these practices.


In the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, Uttar Pradesh was a critical battleground, holding the largest number of parliamentary seats (80) in India. The primary contenders were the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and the coalition of the Samajwadi Party (SP) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), led by Akhilesh Yadav and Mayawati, respectively.

Strategies and Tactics

  1. Caste and Community-Based Mobilization:
    • BJP’s Approach: The BJP focused on consolidating the Hindu vote by appealing to various sub-castes and communities. They successfully mobilized support among non-Yadav Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and non-Jatav Scheduled Castes (SCs), groups that traditionally did not align with the SP and BSP.
    • SP-BSP Coalition: The coalition aimed to unify their core vote banks, i.e., Yadavs and Jatavs, and extend their appeal to other marginalized communities. Their alliance was a significant attempt to counter the BJP’s dominance by combining their social bases.
  2. Targeted Messaging and Social Media:
    • BJP: The BJP used sophisticated data analytics and social media campaigns to micro-target voters. Platforms like WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter were extensively used to disseminate tailored messages, highlight development projects, and promote the narrative of a strong leadership under Modi.
    • SP-BSP: The coalition also leveraged social media but lacked the extensive ground network and digital infrastructure that the BJP had developed. Their messaging focused on social justice, caste oppression, and the failures of the BJP government.
  3. Ground-Level Campaigns and Booth Management:
    • BJP: The BJP’s election machinery was highly organized, with a robust ground network and meticulous booth management. They deployed booth-level workers to ensure maximum voter turnout and to address local issues directly.
    • SP-BSP: While the SP and BSP had strong grassroots connections, especially among their core supporters, their combined efforts in booth management were less synchronized compared to the BJP.
  4. Media and Narrative Control:
    • BJP: The BJP controlled the narrative through mainstream media, emphasizing national security, development, and Hindu unity. They effectively used media coverage to keep opposition on the defensive.
    • SP-BSP: The coalition’s media strategy was less effective. They struggled to counter the BJP’s dominant narratives and faced challenges in getting their messages amplified in mainstream media.

Outcomes and Impact

The BJP’s comprehensive social engineering strategies resulted in a significant victory in Uttar Pradesh, securing 62 out of 80 seats. The SP-BSP alliance, despite its efforts, managed to win only 15 seats.


The 2019 UP elections highlight how social engineering in political campaigns can significantly influence electoral outcomes. The BJP’s success can be attributed to its effective mobilization of diverse caste groups, strategic use of social media, robust ground-level organization, and control over the narrative. This case study underscores the importance of understanding and manipulating social dynamics in Indian politics to achieve electoral success.


  • kalyan chandra

    Kalyan Chandra is a multi-talented professional specializing in public relations, media and communication strategy, political consulting, election campaign management, psephology, marketing, and digital analytics. He focuses on strategic political consulting, offering services that include competitive research, public opinion collection, and digital media management. Kalyan has significantly contributed to successful campaigns across India with his meticulous approach and deep understanding of the political landscape.

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